The study examines labour force participation, occupational changes and unemployment levels of Indian return emigrants at the time of leaving from their country of destination and after return to the country of origin. Further, this article extends the debate on the socioeconomic level of return migrants, post their return, in comparison to the non-migrants. The data from the 64th round of the National Sample Survey (NSS), which is the latest available data on return migration, has been utilised for this study to explore the pre- and post-return migration statuses. The result shows that the occupational changes are substantially different in the pre- and postreturn phases. Meanwhile, the labour force participation ratio is seen to have significantly declined among the return migrants. In addition, unemployment ratio is seen to be significantly higher for both pre- and post-return periods while economic level of return migrants is observed to be better than non-migrants. However, among the return migrants, the poorest are most likely to return than the richest and the category of middle class five times more likely to than richest. The study concludes that return migrants drastically suffered from unemployment and financial problems after return to the country of origin. As a way of addressing these issues, some appropriate policy levels indicated by this analysis are discussed.
Although it is the world’s largest recipient of remittances, India lacks information about the investment behavior of its remittance receiving households. Using data from Reserve Bank of India and the Tobit analysis, this paper examines how remittances, different household and migrant characteristics have affected both the propensity to invest and the amount of investment by the remittance receiving households. The findings have significant implications for policy purposes. For example, government programs can create incentives for older migrants to have more remittance transfers. Remittance money used for children’s education could be matched to create robust flow of educational investments.
Based on our survey conducted in Tamil Nadu, this paper analyses the characteristics of Indian migrant nurses and the factors influencing their migration. India is considered the second largest exporter of nurses after the Philippines. Many Indian nurses have migrated to work in OECD countries, the Gulf countries and some ASEAN countries. While Indian nurses are migrating overseas to fill shortages at their destinations, India has itself been suffering from an acute scarcity of nurses since its independence in 1947. Therefore, the large scale of nurse migration is a serious threat to the Indian healthcare system. The results of the survey imply that international migration by nurses can be explained in part by the gap between the private sector and the public sector in terms of salary and working environment. Since the impact of social status on the migration decisions of nurses has lessened, economic factors are the crucial determinant of international migration of nurses. Policy intervention in this area is the necessary first step to solving this long-standing problem. The priority in any policies formulated should be given to nurses working in the private sector whose salaries are considerably lower than those in the public sector and whose voices are unheard.
The article examines the role of large scale migration surveys in understanding that future. Focusing on the example of Kerala, the article highlights the role of the Kerala Migration Survey (KMS) which has provided data on stocks of emigrants, return emigrants, cost of migration, use of remittances and migration corridors since 1998 The article shows how the Government of Kerala effectively utilized this data to manage the spread of the pandemic and its subsequent socio-economic impact on individuals, communities and society and organize policies and programs as well as to prepare for eventual return migrants for their integration and rehabilitation. Given that the KMS model has been successfully replicated in some of the major states in India, we proposed the KMS model to be replicated nationwide as an India Migration Survey and globally, given the challenges to come in terms of new emerging trends and patterns of migration in post-pandemic world.
Emigration by skilled and semi-skilled workers from India to the Middle East is a strategy for better economic returns. Families rarely accompany migrants. Drawing insights from primary data gathered from intensive fieldwork in Sivaganga district, Tamil Nadu, this article attempts to understand the psychological consequences on the wives left behind. A mixed sampling method was used to derive the sample size. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Pearson’s chi-square tests were mainly used for quantitative analysis supplemented by qualitative methods. The results indicated that wives considered loneliness the most significant psychological problem arising from their husbands’ absence. Stress was also caused by financial problems and the necessity of taking on additional roles in the family.
Despite decent progress in Children Full Immunisation (CFI) in India during the last decade, surprisingly, Gujarat, an economically more developed state, had the second-lowest coverage of CFI (50%) in the country, lower than economically less developed states such as Bihar (62%). Further, the proportion of children with no immunisation in Gujarat has risen from 5% in 2005 to 9% in 2016. This paper investigated factors associated with the low level of CFI coverage in Gujarat.
The article presents an overview of the elderly in Kerala and describes various dimensions of elderly care and concerns, based on data from the Kerala Ageing Survey (KAS) 2013, conducted by the Centre for Development Studies (CDS), Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala. The article looks into the main issues, policies and programmes related to ageing and elderly care practices in Kerala and also addresses the basic care response at three levels: household, institutional and society. The ageing process in Kerala is witnessing an increase in the ratio of elderly population along with fundamental changes in families and communities. Hence, in order to accommodate the needs of the ageing population in society, various systems need to be reconstructed. The concerns and issues surrounding the ageing population requires long-term attentiveness and forward planning, where policies must be adopted with consideration for cultural and social contexts. Care for the elderly should focus on a holistic combination of health care, socio-economic protection and provision of a suitable environment for better quality of life.
Despite the progress achieved in demographic and health-related indicators, achieving targets in the Sustainable Development Goals by 2030 remains a demanding task. This study acts as a perfect benchmark for monitoring several demographics and health-related indicators in the era of the SDGs. There is a need to advance the right sources of data and cutting-edge tools for measuring and monitoring progress. The efforts to reduce regional disparities in demographic and health-related indicators are hindered by the lack of adequate funding to the programmes and the absence of reliable micro-level evidence-based policy.
Indians constitute the highest number of international migrants worldwide after the Chinese. Globally, India ranks at the top for the amount of annual foreign remittances it receives. Despite its significance, research on migration in India has substantial gaps, which underlines the need for further exploration.