With an estimated population of 1. 48 billion (approximately 18% of the world’s population of 8 billion), India is now the most-populous country on earth. According to the latest UN projections, our population is likely to grow for decades, reach its peak by 2064 and possibly decline then. India witnessed 2% annual population growth since 1950 though a nationwide family planning programme was launched in 1952.
But with education and improved access to birth control, India’s fertility fell in most states from 5. 7 births/woman post-Independence to two births/woman today. Infant and maternal death rates declined in the past five decades with impro-vements in healthcare.